Selected Bibliography


Martyn Cobourne

Armstrong, J., Seehra, J., Andiappan, M., Jones, A.G., Papageorgiou, S.N., Cobourne, M.T. (2020) Palatal rugae morphology is associated with variation in tooth number. Sci Rep 10, 19074.


Kim Y, Lee J, Seppala M, Cobourne MT, Kim SH (2020) Ptch2/Gas1 and Ptch1/Boc differentially regulate Hedgehog signalling in murine primordial germ cell migration. Nat Commun 11: doi: 10.1038/s41467-020-15897-15903.


Luqmani S, Jones A, Andiappan M, Cobourne MT (2020) A comparison of conventional vs automated digital Peer Assessment Rating scoring using the Carestream 3600 scanner and CS Model+ software system: A randomized controlled trial. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop. 


Naini FB, Laskin DM, Garagiola U, Cobourne MT, McDonald F, Wertheim DJ (2020) The opinion of different observer groups about the esthetic impact and need for surgical correction of varying submental lengths. Oral Maxillofac Surg 78:630.e1-630.e9.


Saloom HF, Boustan R, Seehra J, Papageorgiou SN, Carpenter GH, Cobourne MT (2020) The impact of obesity on orthodontic treatment outcome in adolescents: a prospective clinical cohort study. Eur J Orthod. Online ahead of print.


Okuhara S, Birjandi AA, Adel Al-Lami H, Sagai T, Amano T, Shiroishi T, Xavier GM, Liu KJ, Cobourne MT, Iseki S (2019) Temporospatial sonic hedgehog signalling is essential for neural crest-dependent patterning of the intrinsic tongue musculature. Development 146 In press


Seehra J, Al-Ali A, Pandis N, Cobourne MT (2019) Space closure versus space opening for bilateral absent upper lateral incisors: what is the duration of orthodontic treatment? Eur J Orthod. In press


Ireland AJ, Atack NE, Cunningham SJ, House K, Cobourne MT, Hunt NP, Sherriff M, Sandy JR (2019) National British Orthodontic Society (BOS) Orthognathic Audit 2017-2018. J Orthod 46:287-296.


Durkan M, Chauhan R, Pandis N, Cobourne MT, Seehra JJ (2019) Adequate Reporting of Dental Diagnostic Accuracy Studies is Lacking: An Assessment of Reporting in Relation to the Standards for Reporting of Diagnostic Accuracy Studies Statement. Evid Based Dent Pract 19:283-294.


Saloom HF, Carpenter GH, Cobourne MT (2019) A cross-sectional cohort study of gingival crevicular fluid biomarkers in normal-weight and obese subjects during orthodontic treatment with fixed appliances. Angle Orthod. In press


Sivarajan S, Doss JG, Papageorgiou SN, Cobourne MT, Wey MC (2018). Mini-implant supported canine retraction with micro-osteoperforation: A split-mouth exploratory randomized clinical trial. Angle Orthod 89: 183-189.


Papageorgiou SN, Xavier GM, Cobourne MT, Eliades T (2018). Effect of orthodontic treatment on the subgingival microbiota: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Orthod Craniofac Res 21: 175-185.


Abid MF, Simpson MA, Barbosa IA, Seppala M, Irving M, Sharpe PT, Cobourne MT (2018). WNT10A mutation results in severe tooth agenesis in a family of three sisters. Orthod Craniofac Res. In Press


Kawasaki M, Kawasaki K, Meguro F, Yamada A, Ishikawa R, Porntaveetus T, Blackburn  J, Otsuka-Tanaka Y, Saito N, Ota MS, Sharpe PT, Kessler JA, Herz J, Cobourne MT, Maeda T, Ohazama, A (2018). Lrp4/Wise regulates palatal rugae development through Turing-type reaction-diffusion mechanisms. PLoS One 13: e0204126.


Seehra J, Yaqoob O, Patel S, O'Neill J, Bryant C, Noar J, Morris D, Cobourne MT (2018). National clinical guidelines for the management of unerupted maxillary incisors in children. Br Dent J 224: 779-785.


Zoupa M, Xavier GM, Bryan S, Theologidis I, Arno M, Cobourne MT (2018). Gene expression profiling in the developing secondary palate in the absence of Tbx1 function. BMC Genomics 19: 429.


Cobourne MT, Iseki S, Birjandi AA, Adel Al-Lami H, Thauvin-Robinet C, Xavier GM, Liu KJ (2018). How to make a tongue: Cellular and molecular regulation of muscle and connective tissue formation during mammalian tongue development. Semin Cell Dev Biol, In press


Papageorgiou SN, Xavier G, Cobourne MT, Eliades T (2018). Registered trials report less beneficial treatment effects than unregistered ones: a meta-epidemiological study. J Clin Epidemiol 100: 44-52.


Seppala M, Fraser G J, Birjandi AA, Xavier GM, Cobourne M T (2017). Sonic Hedgehog Signaling and Development of the Dentition. J Dev Biol: 5.


DiBiase AT, Woodhouse NR, Papageorgiou SN, Johnson N, Slipper C, Grant J, Alsaleh M, Khaja Y, Cobourne, MT (2018). Effects of supplemental vibrational force on space closure, treatment duration, and occlusal outcome: A multicenter randomized clinical trial. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop 153: 469-480 e464.


Saloom HF, Papageorgiou SN, Carpenter GH, Cobourne MT (2017). Impact of Obesity on Orthodontic Tooth Movement in Adolescents. J Dent Res 96: 547-554.

DiBiase AT, Woodhouse NR, Papageorgiou SN, Johnson N, Slipper C, Grant J, Alsaleh M, Cobourne MT (2016). Effect of supplemental vibrational force on orthodontically induced inflammatory root resorption: A multicenter randomized clinical trial. Am J Ortho Dentofac Orthop 150: 918-927.

Cartwright G, Wright NS, Vasuvadev J, Akram S, Huppa C, Matthews NS, Sherriff M, Cobourne MT (2016). Outcome of combined orthodontic-surgical treatment in a United Kingdom university dental institute. J Orthod 43: 94-101.

Woodhouse NR, DiBiase AT, Papageorgiou SN, Johnson N, Slipper C, Grant J, Alsaleh M, Cobourne MT (2015). Supplemental vibrational force does not reduce pain experience during initial alignment with fixed orthodontic appliances: a multicenter randomized clinical trial. Sci Rep 5: 17224.

Woodhouse NR, DiBiase AT, Johnson N, Slipper C, Grant J, Alsalah M, Donaldson ANA, Cobourne MT (2015) Supplemental Vibrational Force During Orthodontic Alignment: A Randomized Trial. J Dent Res 94: 682-689.

Papageorgiou SN, Xavier GM, Cobourne MT (2015) Basic study design influences the results of orthodontic clinical investigations. J Clin Epidemiol 68: 1512-1522.

DiBiase AT, Cobourne MT, Lee RT (2015) The use of functional appliances in contemporary orthodontic practice. Br Dent J 218: 123-128.

Jesani A, DiBiase AT, Cobourne MT, Newton T (2014) Perceived changes by peer group of social impact associated with combined orthodontic-surgical correction of class III malocclusion. J Dent 42: 1135-1142.

Ireland AJ, Cunningham SJ, Petrie A, Cobourne MT, Acharya P, Sandy JR, Hunt NP. (2014) An Index of Orthognathic Functional Treatment Need (IOFTN). J Orthod 41: 77-83.

Cobourne MT, Williams A, Harrison M (2014) National clinical guidelines for the extraction of first permanent molars in children. Br Dent J 217: 643-648.

Seehra J, Wright NS, Polychronopoulou A, Cobourne MT, Pandis N (2013) Reporting Quality of Abstracts of Randomized Controlled Trials Published in Dental Specialty Journals. J Evid Based Dent Pract 13: 1-8.

Pandis N, Cobourne MT (2013) Clinical trial design for orthodontists. J Orthod 40: 93-103.

Cobourne MT, Sharpe PT (2013) Diseases of the tooth: the genetic and molecular basis of inherited anomalies affecting the dentition. Wiley Interdiscip Rev Dev Biol 2: 183-212.

Yaqoob O, Dibiase AT, Fleming PS, Cobourne MT (2012) Use of the Clark Twin Block functional appliance with and without an upper labial bow: a randomized controlled trial. Angle Orthod 82: 363-369.

Naini FB, Donaldson AN, McDonald F, Cobourne MT (2012) The influence of combined orthodontic-orthognathic surgical treatment on perceptions of attractiveness: a longitudinal study. Eur J Orthod 35: 590-598.

Wright N, Modarai F, Cobourne MT, Dibiase AT (2011) Do you do Damon? What is the current evidence base underlying the philosophy of this appliance system? J Orthod 38: 222-230.

Patel U, Cobourne MT (2011) Orthodontic extractions and the Internet: Quality of online information available to the public. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop 139: e103-109.

Patel S, Fanshawe T, Bister D, Cobourne MT (2011) Survival and success of maxillary canine autotransplantation: a retrospective investigation. Eur J Orthod 33: 298-304.

Dibiase AT, Nasr IH, Scott P, Cobourne MT (2011) Duration of treatment and occlusal outcome using Damon3 self-ligated and conventional orthodontic bracket systems in extraction patients: A prospective randomized clinical trial. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop 139: e111-116.

Cobourne MT, Sharpe PT (2010) Making up the numbers: The molecular control of mammalian dental formula. Semin Cell Dev Biol 21: 314-324.

Scott P, Sherriff M, Dibiase AT, Cobourne MT (2008) Perception of discomfort during initial orthodontic tooth alignment using a self-ligating or conventional bracket system: a randomized clinical trial. Eur J Orthod 30: 227-232.

Scott P, DiBiase AT, Sherriff M, Cobourne MT (2008) Alignment efficiency of Damon3 self-ligating and conventional orthodontic bracket systems: a randomized clinical trial. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop 134: 470 e471-478.

Ely NJ, Sherriff M, Cobourne MT (2006) Dental transposition as a disorder of genetic origin. Eur J Orthod 28: 145-151.


Xavier GM, Seppala M, Papageorgiou SN, Fan CM, Cobourne MT (2016). Genetic interactions between the hedgehog co-receptors Gas1 and Boc regulate cell proliferation during murine palatogenesis. Oncotarget 7: 79233-79246.

Xavier GM, Seppala M, Barrell W, Birjandi AA, Geoghegan F, Cobourne MT (2016). Hedgehog receptor function during craniofacial development. Dev Biol 415: 198-215.

Brock LJ, Economou AD, Cobourne MT, Green JB (2016). Mapping cellular processes in the mesenchyme during palatal development in the absence of Tbx1 reveals complex proliferation changes and perturbed cell packing and polarity. J Anat 228:464-473.

Xavier GM, Patist AL, Healy C, Pagrut G, Carreno G, Sharpe PT, Pedro Martinez-Barbera J, Thavaraj S, Cobourne MT, Andoniadou CL (2015). Activated WNT signaling in postnatal SOX2-positive dental stem cells can drive odontoma formation. Sci Rep 5: 14479.

Seppala M, Xavier GM, Fan CM, Cobourne MT (2014) Boc modifies the spectrum of holoprosencephaly in the absence of Gas1 function. Biol Open 8: 728-740.

Xavier GM, Panousopoulos L, Cobourne MT (2013) Scube3 Is Expressed in Multiple Tissues during Development but Is Dispensable for Embryonic Survival in the Mouse. PLoS One 8: e55274.

Economou AD, Ohazama A, Porntaveetus T, Sharpe PT, Kondo S, Basson MA, Gritli-Linde A, Cobourne MT, Green JB. (2012) Periodic stripe formation by a Turing mechanism operating at growth zones in the mammalian palate. Nat Genet 44: 348-351.

Whitehouse CA, Waters S, Marchbank K, Horner A, McGowan NW, Jovanovic J, Xavier GM, Kashima TG, Cobourne MT, Richards GO, Sharpe PT, Skerry TM, Grigoriadis AE, Solomon E. (2010) Neighbor of Brca1 gene (Nbr1) functions as a negative regulator of postnatal osteoblastic bone formation and p38 MAPK activity. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 107: 12913-12918.

Ohazama A, Haycraft CJ, Seppala M, Blackburn J, Ghafoor S, Cobourne MT, Martinelli DC. Fan CM, Peterkova R, Lesot H, Yoder BK, Sharpe, PT (2009) Primary cilia regulate Shh activity in the control of molar tooth number. Development 136: 897-903.

Cobourne MT, Xavier GM, Depew M, Hagan L, Sealby J, et al. (2009) Sonic hedgehog signalling inhibits palatogenesis and arrests tooth development in a mouse model of the nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome. Dev Biol 331: 38-49.

Seppala M, Depew MJ, Martinelli DC, Fan CM, Sharpe PT, Cobourne MT (2007) Gas1 is a modifier for holoprosencephaly and genetically interacts with sonic hedgehog. J Clin Invest 117: 1575-1584.

Gritli-Linde A, Hallberg K, Harfe BD, Reyahi A, Kannius-Janson M, Nilsson J, Cobourne MT, Sharpe PT, McMahon AP, Linde, A (2007) Abnormal hair development and apparent follicular transformation to mammary gland in the absence of hedgehog signaling. Dev Cell 12: 99-112.

Buxton PG, Cobourne MT (2007) Regenerative approaches in the craniofacial region: manipulating cellular progenitors for oro-facial repair. Oral Dis 13: 452-460.

Cobourne MT, Mitsiadis T (2006) Neural crest cells and patterning of the mammalian dentition. J Exp Zool B Mol Dev Evol 306: 251-260.

Cobourne MT, Miletich I, Sharpe PT (2004) Restriction of sonic hedgehog signalling during early tooth development. Development 131: 2875-2885.

Cobourne MT (2004) The complex genetics of cleft lip and palate. Eur J Orthod 26: 7-16.

Cobourne MT, Sharpe PT (2003) Tooth and jaw: molecular mechanisms of patterning in the first branchial arch. Arch Oral Biol 48: 1-14.

Whitehouse C, Chambers J, Howe K, Cobourne MT, Sharpe PT, Solomon E (2002) NBR1 interacts with fasciculation and elongation protein zeta-1 (FEZ1) and calcium and integrin binding protein (CIB) and shows developmentally restricted expression in the neural tube. Eur J Biochem 269: 538-545.

Cobourne MT, Hardcastle Z, Sharpe PT (2001) Sonic hedgehog regulates epithelial proliferation and cell survival in the developing tooth germ. J Dent Res 80: 1974-1979.

Sarkar L, Cobourne MT, Naylor S, Smalley M, Dale T, Sharpe PT (2000) Wnt/Shh interactions regulate ectodermal boundary formation during mammalian tooth development. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 97: 4520-4524.

Cobourne MT (2000) Construction for the modern head: current concepts in craniofacial development. J Orthod 27: 307-314.

 

Andrew DiBiase

DiBiase AT, Woodhouse NR, Papageorgiou SN, Johnson N, Slipper C, Grant J, Alsaleh M, Khaja Y, Cobourne, MT (2018). Effects of supplemental vibrational force on space closure, treatment duration, and occlusal outcome: A multicenter randomized clinical trial. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop 153: 469-480 e464.


Brierley CA, DiBiase A, Sandler PJ (2017). Early Class II treatment. Aust Dent J 62 Suppl 1 4-10.


DiBiase AT, Woodhouse NR, Papageorgiou SN, Johnson N, Slipper C, Grant J et al. (2016). Effect of supplemental vibrational force on orthodontically induced inflammatory root resorption: A multicenter randomized clinical trial. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop 150: 918-927.

Woodhouse NR, DiBiase AT, Johnson N, Slipper C, Grant J, Alsaleh M et al. (2015). Supplemental vibrational force during orthodontic alignment: a randomized trial. J Dent Res 94: 682-689.

Woodhouse NR, DiBiase AT, Papageorgiou SN, Johnson N, Slipper C, Grant J et al. (2015). Supplemental vibrational force does not reduce pain experience during initial alignment with fixed orthodontic appliances: a multicenter randomized clinical trial. Sci Rep 5: 17224.

Mandall N, Cousley R, DiBiase A, Dyer F, Littlewood S, Mattick R et al. (2016). Early class III protraction facemask treatment reduces the need for orthognathic surgery: a multi-centre, two-arm parallel randomized, controlled trial. J Orthod 43: 164-175.

DiBiase AT, Cobourne MT, Lee RT (2015). The use of functional appliances in contemporary orthodontic practice. Br Dent J 218: 123-128.

Benson PE, Javidi H, DiBiase AT (2015). What is the value of orthodontic treatment? Br Dent J 218: 185-190.

Campbell CM, DiBiase A, Fleming PS (2014). Concomitant dilaceration, transposition, and intraosseous migration: report of a patient treated with maxillary canine-central incisor substitution. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop 146: 514-521.

Jesani A, DiBiase AT, Cobourne MT, Newton T (2014). Perceived changes by peer group of social impact associated with combined orthodontic-surgical correction of class III malocclusion. J Dent 42: 1135-1142.

Lee RT, Barnes E, DiBiase A, Govender R, Qureshi U (2014). An extended period of functional appliance therapy: a controlled clinical trial comparing the Twin Block and Dynamax appliances. Eur J Orthod 36: 512-521.

Seehra J, Newton JT, Dibiase AT (2013). Interceptive orthodontic treatment in bullied adolescents and its impact on self-esteem and oral-health-related quality of life. Eur J Orthod 35: 615-621.

Yaqoob O, Dibiase AT, Fleming PS, Cobourne MT (2012). Use of the Clark Twin Block functional appliance with and without an upper labial bow: a randomized controlled trial. Angle Orthod 82: 363-369.

Seehra J, Fleming PS, Mandall N, Dibiase AT (2012). A comparison of two different techniques for early correction of Class III malocclusion. Angle Orthod 82: 96-101.

Mandall N, Cousley R, DiBiase A, Dyer F, Littlewood S, Mattick R et al. (2012). Is early Class III protraction facemask treatment effective? A multicentre, randomized, controlled trial: 3-year follow-up. J Orthod 39: 176-185.

Fleming PS, Qureshi U, Pandis N, DiBiase A, Lee RT (2012). An investigation of cephalometric and morphological predictors of successful twin block therapy. Aust Orthod J 28: 190-196.

Fleming PS, Seehra J, Dibiase AT (2011). Combined orthodontic-restorative management of maxillary central incisors lost following traumatic injury: a case report. Orthodontics (Chic) 12: 242-251.

DiBiase AT, Nasr IH, Scott P, Cobourne MT (2011). Duration of treatment and occlusal outcome using Damon3 self-ligated and conventional orthodontic bracket systems in extraction patients: a prospective randomized clinical trial. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop 139: e111-116.

Wright N, Modarai F, Cobourne MT, Dibiase AT (2011). Do you do Damon(R)? What is the current evidence base underlying the philosophy of this appliance system? J Orthod 38: 222-230.

Yaqoob O, DiBiase AT, Garvey T, Fleming PS (2011). Relationship between bilateral congenital absence of maxillary lateral incisors and anterior tooth width. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop 139: e229-233.

Yaqoob O, DiBiase AT, Kane R, Fleming PS (2011). Pre-eruptive coronal resorption of a maxillary canine: a case report. Orthodontics (Chic) 12: 148-151.

Seehra J, Fleming PS, Newton T, DiBiase AT (2011). Bullying in orthodontic patients and its relationship to malocclusion,self-esteem and oral health-related quality of life. J Orthod 38: 247-256; quiz 294.

Seehra J, Newton JT, DiBiase AT (2011). Bullying in schoolchildren - its relationship to dental appearance and psychosocial implications: an update for GDPs. Br Dent J 210: 411-415.

Seehra J, Winchester L, DiBiase AT, Cobourne MT (2011). Orthodontic management of ectopic maxillary first permanent molars: a case report. Aust Orthod J 27: 57-62.

Mandall N, DiBiase A, Littlewood S, Nute S, Stivaros N, McDowall R et al. (2010). Is early Class III protraction facemask treatment effective? A multicentre, randomized, controlled trial: 15-month follow-up. J Orthod 37: 149-161.

Fleming PS, DiBiase AT, Lee RT (2010). Randomized clinical trial of orthodontic treatment efficiency with self-ligating and conventional fixed orthodontic appliances. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop 137: 738-742.

Seehra J, Fleming PS, Dibiase AT (2010). Reverse Twin Block appliance for early dental Class III correction. J Clin Orthod 44: 602-610.

Fleming PS, Sharma PK, DiBiase AT (2010). How to...mechanically erupt a palatal canine. J Orthod 37: 262-271.

Fleming PS, Xavier GM, DiBiase AT, Cobourne MT (2010). Revisiting the supernumerary: the epidemiological and molecular basis of extra teeth. Br Dent J 208: 25-30.

Fleming PS, Dibiase AT, Sarri G, Lee RT (2009). Pain experience during initial alignment with a self-ligating and a conventional fixed orthodontic appliance system. A randomized controlled clinical trial. Angle Orthod 79: 46-50.

Fleming PS, DiBiase AT, Sarri G, Lee RT (2009). Efficiency of mandibular arch alignment with 2 preadjusted edgewise appliances. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop 135: 597-602.

Fleming PS, DiBiase AT, Sarri G, Lee RT (2009). Comparison of mandibular arch changes during alignment and leveling with 2 preadjusted edgewise appliances. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop 136: 340-347.

Fleming PS, Scott P, Heidari N, Dibiase AT (2009). Influence of radiographic position of ectopic canines on the duration of orthodontic treatment. Angle Orthod 79: 442-446.

Fleming PS, DiBiase AT (2008). Systematic reviews in orthodontics: what have we learned? Int Dent J 58: 10-14.

Fleming PS, Dibiase AT, Lee RT (2008). Arch form and dimensional changes in orthodontics. Prog Orthod 9: 66-73.

Fleming PS, DiBiase AT, Lee RT (2008). Self-ligating appliances: evolution or revolution? Aust Orthod J 24: 41-49.

Fleming PS, DiBiase AT, Lee RT (2008). Self-ligating appliances: evolution or revolution? J Clin Orthod 42: 641-651.


Fleming PS, Johal A, DiBiase AT (2008). Managing malocclusion in the mixed dentition: six keys to success. Part 1. Dent Update 35: 607-610, 612-603.

Fleming PS, Proczek K, DiBiase AT (2008). I want braces: factors motivating patients and their parents to seek orthodontic treatment. Community Dent Health 25: 166-169.

Dibiase A (2009). What is orthodontics? J Orthod 36: 71-72.

Seehra J, Fleming PS, DiBiase AT (2009). Orthodontic treatment of localised gingival recession associated with traumatic anterior crossbite. Aust Orthod J 25: 76-81.

Scott P, DiBiase AT, Sherriff M, Cobourne MT (2008). Alignment efficiency of Damon3 self-ligating and conventional orthodontic bracket systems: a randomized clinical trial. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop 134: 470 e471-478.

Scott P, Sherriff M, Dibiase AT, Cobourne MT (2008). Perception of discomfort during initial orthodontic tooth alignment using a self-ligating or conventional bracket system: a randomized clinical trial. Eur J Orthod 30: 227-232.

DiBiase AT, Cobourne MT (2008). Beware the solitary maxillary median central incisor. J Orthod 35: 16-19.

Fleming P, Johal A, DiBiase AT (2008). Managing malocclusion in the mixed dentition: six keys to success part 2. Dent Update 35: 673-676.

Fleming PS, Scott P, DiBiase AT (2007). Compliance: getting the most from your orthodontic patients. Dent Update 34: 565-566, 569-570, 572.


Fleming PS, Scott P, DiBiase AT (2007). How to ... manage the transition from functional to fixed appliances. J Orthod 34: 252-259.

Scott P, Fleming P, DiBiase A (2007). An update in adult orthodontics. Dent Update 34: 427-428; 431-424.

Grant JE, Abu Mezier N, Dibiase AT (2006). Mandibular first and second molar tooth transposition: a case report. Int J Paediatr Dent 16: 227-229.


DiBiase A (2002). The timing of orthodontic treatment. Dent Update 29: 434-441.

DiBiase AT, Sandler PJ (2001). Does orthodontics damage faces? Dent Update 28: 98-102, 104.

DiBiase AT, Sandler PJ (2001). Malocclusion, orthodontics and bullying. Dent Update 28: 464-466.

Samuels RH, DiBiase AT (2001). Changes in circumferential neck measurements during movements of the head in children and their relevance to extraoral traction. Angle Orthod 71: 44-49.

Dibiase AT, Samuels RH, Ozdiler E, Akcam MO, Turkkahraman H (2000). Hazards of orthodontics appliances and the oropharynx. J Orthod 27: 295-302.